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Brazil is the biggest exporter of Indian breeds of cows. Gir cow now records over 62 litres/day in Brazil..

This majestic cow is from Brazil. Belonging to the Gir breed of Gujarat, this cow -- named She-ra -- clocked 62.033 litres of milk in a 3-day milk competition at the 40th Expaja in Brazil, beating her own record of 59.947 litres. While Indian cattle breeds are doing exceptionally fine abroad, the fascination of our own policy makers for exotic breeds seems to be never ending. Meanwhile, Brazil has emerged as the biggest exporter of Indian breeds of cows. Recently I wrote: "newspapers in Punjab reported that an American company -- World Wide Sires Ltd -- is planning to provide high quality semen to dairy farmers. Some days back, I had heard that the Kerala minister for Animal Husbandry was thinking of importing some improved cattle breeds from Denmark for cross breeding with local cows." [See my blog post: Holy Cows -- acclaimed abroad, despised at home.

A few weeks back, Punjab Chief Minister Prakash Singh Badal announced the setting up of an advanced institute for dairy farming in Mohali. This will be a joint collaboration with an Israeli firm -- Dairy Farming Solutions -- and will impart latest technology to farmers to improve the milch cattle [Punjab to have advanced institute of dairy farming.

Not only in Brazil, Indian cattle breeds have also been improved upon in the United States and Australia. In the US, the breed is called Brahman. Recently, after a study visit to Malaysia, Sagari Ramdas, the co-director of Anthra in Andhra Pradesh, wrote in the Down to Earth magazine: "On our visit to Malaysia, we were intrigued when we came across a cattle breed, which the farmers kept referring to as “the Brahman”. This was a complete mystery to us. Which Brahman came to Malaysia and named these cattle the Brahman?"

"On our visit to the government’s Department of Veterinary Services in the state of Selangor we saw photographs of the Grey Brahman, the Red Brahman and the Nellore - all part of a poster on cattle breeds of Malaysia. Not to mention that the Jamunapari goat also featured in the poster as a goat breed of the country. This intrigued us even further, but none of the veterinary officers could explain how the Nellore from Andhra Pradesh and the Jamunapari from Uttar Pradesh happened to figure in a poster on the breeds of Malaysia."

She came back and researched. "Brahman breed is a product of biopiracy of several Indian breeds, which occurred over 100 years ago, when India was a colony of the British Empire, when “pirates” of today’s “Empire”—and modern day “Brahman”, the US—spirited out a nucleus of approximately 266 bulls and 22 females of several Bos indicus (Indian cattle), imported them to the US between 1854 and 1926, and developed the breed.

According to the literature, the Brahman is the progeny of four Indian cattle breeds: the Kankrej and Gir from Gujarat, the Ongole (earlier known as the Nellore) from Andhra Pradesh, with the fourth breed being the “Gujarat”. But no such breed exists in the list of Indian cattle breeds.

The Brahman has become the most popular beef cattle breed in the southern parts of the US and in South America, Asia, and Australia because of its excellent adaptability to sub-tropical climates and its production abilities.

Brahman-type cattle were, in fact, imported to Australia from the US, and today the Australian Brahman is the mainstay of the northern beef industry of Australia. The Brahman in Malaysia has primarily been imported from Australia, which has a virtual monopoly in exporting the breed to several south-east Asian countries. So much so that Malaysia’s beef cattle industry is completely dependent on continued import of the Brahman from Australia [You can read the full article The loss of our breeds, Down to Earth, 2012-7-15.

This brings me back to the question I have been asking again and again. When will we begin to recognise our desi breeds of cows? Why is it that planners are averse to our own domestic breeds?

What is also little know is the fact that Indian cows and buffaloes produce a more nutritious milk than the exotic breeds like Jersey and Holstein-Friesian. A recent study by Karnal-based National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources (NBAGR) showed Indian cows have a rich A2 allele gene which helps them produce healthier milk. The frequency of this A2 allele in Indian breeds is 100 per cent whereas in exotic cattle breeds it is less than 60 per cent. Imported breeds posses A1 allele, which is considered to be associated with diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular diseases

Cow's milk may harbour gastric cancer cure

A new research has indicated that a peptide fragment derived from cow's milk, known as lactoferricin B25 (LFcinB25), exhibited potent anticancer capability against human stomach cancer cell cultures.

Wei-Jung Chen, PhD, of the Department of Biotechnology and Animal Science of National Ilan University, Taiwan Republic of China evaluated the effects of three peptide fragments derived from lactoferricin B, a peptide in milk that has antimicrobial properties.

Only one of the fragments, LFcinB25 reduced the survival of human AGS (Gastric Adenocarcinoma) cells in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner.

Under a microscope the investigators could see that after an hour of exposure to the gastric cancer cells, LFcinB25 migrated to the cell membrane of the AGS cells, and within 24 hours the cancer cells had shrunken in size and lost their ability to adhere to surfaces.

In the early stages of exposure, LFcinB25 reduced cell viability through both apoptosis (programmed cell death) and autophagy (degradation and recycling of obsolete or damaged cell parts). At later stages, apoptosis appeared to dominate, possibly through caspase-dependent mechanisms, and autophagy waned.

The research also suggested a target, Beclin-1, which may enhance LFcinB25's cytotoxic action. Beclin-1 is a protein in humans that plays a central role in autophagy, tumour growth, and degeneration of neurons.

"Optimization of LFcinB using various strategies to enhance further selectivity is expected to yield novel anticancer drugs with chemotherapeutic potential for the treatment of gastric cancer," Dr. Chen said.

The study is published in the Journal of Dairy Science.

గోవుపాలు తాగండి.. క్యాన్సర్‌కు చెక్ పెట్టండి..!

గోవుపాలలో ఉన్న మరో విశిష్ఠత వెలుగు చూసింది. గ్యాస్ట్రిక్ కాన్సర్ కణాలను అంతం చేయడంలో ఆవుపాలలోని పెప్టయిడ్ అద్భుతంగా పనిచేస్తుందని తైవాన్ పరిశోధకులు కనుగొన్నారు. ఆవుపాల నుంచి సేకరించిన లాక్టోఫెర్రిసిన్ బీ25 అనే పెప్టయిడ్ కడుపులో కేన్సర్ కణాలపై ప్రభావవంతంగా పనిచేయగలదని వారు తెలిపారు. గ్యాస్ట్రిక్ కేన్సర్ నిరోధానికి వీలుగా భవిష్యత్తులో ఈ పెప్టయిడ్‌ను వాడేందుకు తాజా పరిశోధన ఫలితాలు ఉపకరిస్తాయని భావిస్తున్నారు.

ఆవుపాలు తీసుకోవడం ద్వారా బ్రెస్ట్ క్యాన్సర్ దూరమవుతుందని, ఇందులోని క్యాల్షియం రక్తపోటును నియంత్రిస్తుందని కూడా పరిశోధకులు తెలిపారు. ఆవుపాలతో మైగ్రేన్ తలనొప్పులు, పిల్లల్లో ఒబిసిటీకి కూడా చెక్ పెట్టవచ్చు. అలాగే పెద్దల్లోనూ బరువు తగ్గడంలో ఆవుపాలు ఎంతగానో తోడ్పడుతుంది.

Most milk in Hyderabad unsafe to drink: GHMC

HYDERABAD: Denizens beware as the milk you give to your child everyday before school and at night is unsafe for drinking.

A new report submitted by the GHMC commissioner to the state human rights commission following a complaint says eight brands of packaged milk were either found to be unsafe or sub-standard, after they were examined by the state-run Institute of preventive medicine.

Some of these brands belong to multi-national as well as well-known dairy companies.

The new report comes months after police busted a huge milk adulteration racket in the city in which some miscreants were caught mixing hydrogen peroxide with water and inferior quality milk powder and sell them as packaged milk.

Surprisingly in 2011, a milk survey undertaken by Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) found AP to be in the 'mostly safe' zone compared to other states in the country.

But when contacted on Monday, FSSAI officials called for strong action against the guilty firms.

"If there are brands which have been categorized under unsafe, then it is a cause of concern," Pradip Chakraborty, director FSSAI told TOI from New Delhi. "These companies will attract sections 50 to 63 under Food Safety Act. Apart from being slapped with penalty, the managements of these companies are liable to face criminal charges," he added.

Health experts said adulterated milk adversely affects human health in numerous ways with scientists saying that adulterated milk mostly contains salmonella, e-coli and other chemicals.

"It is a clear sign that polluted water is being used in the processing of these packaged milk," said Veena Kshatrugna, leading nutritionist from the city.

"The immediate affects of consuming the adulterated milk can be frequent gastroenteritis, high fever and typhoid," she said.

Adulterated milk consumed for a prolonged period could weaken the immunity of the body, said Suhatha Stephan, another practicing nutritionist from the city.

Officials sitting on report, alleges city RTI activist

"The initial signs may be intestinal disturbances, but those consuming it regularly may fall prey to various other ailments too over a period of time," Stephan said.

The complainant, Achyuta Rao, activist and petitioner in the case said he was hopeful that strong action would be taken. "I first filed this case in January 2013 in the human rights commission after I had got some milk samples tested which proved adulteration," he said.

The Human Rights Commission has however decided to post this matter to January 23, 2014, a good four months after the report was tabled without considering the seriousness of the issue.

Hyderabad: A major milk adulteration racket was unearthed in Regimental Bazaar on Tuesday. In a surprise raid conducted jointly by the task force police, food con­troller and drug inspector, huge amounts of raw corrosive chemicals were found that were being used to produce tonnes of adulterated milk.

A gang headed by C. Damodar Yadav, 30, a resident of Bholakpur, was running the criminal business for over five years. His firm, KMB, has been supplying toxic milk to many restaurants, hotels and vendors, and raking in Rs40,000 to Rs 50,000 a day. However, the police didn’t divulge the names of the hotels that the milk was supplied to.

Additional DCP, Task For-ce, P. Rameshaiah said water, chemicals such as hydr-ogen peroxide (used to cle-an external wounds), and dubious milk powder were added to produce 10 litres of contaminated milk from one litre of milk. The ban-ned hormone oxytocin used for enhancing productivity in cattle was also found.

Assistant food controller R. Nageshwaraiah said, “The chemicals used cause hormonal imbalances and are dangerous to vital body organs. If consumed, it adv-ances puberty in girls and may cause male infertility.”

Dr Narsimhulu, professor of medicine at Gandhi Hos-pital said, “Oxytocin is a hormone, and its consumption can lead to early diabetes, damage the pancreas and is harmful for growth of children and women.” Hydrogen peroxide produces foam when exposed to air and it makes the milk look thick, he added.

Simple home tests to check adulterated milk

There are a number of ways to check if the milk you are buying is fit for consumption or not. It is important that you carry out these checks periodically to ensure that there are no unwanted chemicals in the milk you buy.

Here are a few easy tests you can do at home:

Milk slip test - Put a drop of milk on a polished vertical surface. If it stops or flows slowly, leaving a white trail behind, it is pure milk. Milk mixed with water or other agents will flow down immediately without a trace.

Reduction test - Boil some milk on a slow heat while moving it with a spoon till it becomes solid (khoya). Take it off the heat and wait for 2-3 hours. If the produced solid is oily, the milk is of good quality; if it's not, it means the milk is synthetic.

Adulterated milk racket busted

A joint team of police, GHMC and drug control administration on Tuesday busted a racket which was involved in preparing and selling adulterated milk. They would dilute the milk using milk powder and chemicals, including a banned item, oxytocin.

A milk trader was also involved the racket.

On a tip-off, task force sleuths, along with officers of commissioner of food safety and drug controlling department, raided a shop at Regimental Bazar. Ch Damodar Yadav (30), a trader from Bholakpur in Musheerabad, has been into milk business for the last 10 years.

He was reportedly found selling a banned veterinary drug, oxytocin, which enhances the cattle’s milk production but drastically affects the health of human beings who consume the milk.

According to police, Yadav was selling adulterated milk, milk powder and chemicals like hydrogen peroxide, oxytocin ampoules, hypodermic syringes etc without valid permission from concerned officials.

Task force additional DCP P Rameshaiah said Yadav used to purchase non-ISI brand milk powder from Bowenapally and Begum Bazar and sell the same to the milk vendors by charging extra money. Milk vendors then purchase the powder in retail from Damodar.

“To prepare ten litres of milk, Yadav used one kilo milk powder, nine litres water, one litre original milk and 15 ml of hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide gives a thick lather and foam. One litre of adulterated milk costs only about `15 and they sell it for about `35,” Rameshaiah said.

Damodar used to sell oxytocin, along with hypodermic syringes. “Oxytocin ampoules are injected into cattle to get a higher output of milk. After being injected into cattle, traces of oxytocin are carried into humans who consume it. This drug has drastic effects on the health of people who drink it,” the officer said.

Police recovered 25 bags of non-ISI branded milk powder, 40 bags of ISI branded milk powder, 1,000 Oxytocin ampoules, 130 bottles of Oxytocin liquid without labels, 250 litres of hydrogen peroxide and 400 hypodermic syringes.

Detect Adulteration in Milk: Empowering Consumers to Test themselves

Dr. Sitaram Dixit – Chairman, Consumer Guidance Society of India writes an informative article on detecting adulteration in milk. From the archives of Keemat

Although many known methods for detection of adulteration in milk, exists, the methods compiled below are not only simple and rapid but also very sensitive to detect milk adulteration. These tests can be carried out easily by consumers using simple laboratory apparatus, common chemicals and the milk adulteration test reagent kit developed. The testing protocol is as given below.

1. Concentrated Hydrochloric acid. (1:1)
2. Concentrated Sulphuric acid. (1:1)
3. Concentrated Nitric acid. (1:1)
4. Citric acid. (Concentrated Solution)
5. Ammonia Solution: (1:1)
6. Phosphomolybdic acid. 1% (w/v) water.
7. Resorcinol (White flakes)
8. (N/10) hydrochloric acid standard.
9. Rosolic Acid: 1% (w/v) in alcohol.
10. Phenolphthalein Indicator: 1% (w/v) alcohol.
11. Paraphenylene diamine indicator: 1% (w/v) alcohol.
12. Iodine solution: 1% iodine in 10% Potassium Iodide Solution (w/v)
13. Vanadium Pentoxide Reagent: 1% (w/v) in 6% (w/v) sulphuric acid solution.
14. Barford Reagent: Dissolve 24 gm of Copper acetate in 450 ml of boiling distilled water. Add 25 ml of 8.5 % (w/v) acetic acid solution, shake, cool to room temperature and make upto 500 ml. After sedimentation filter the reagent and store in dark coloured bottle.
15. Para-dimethyl amino benzaldehyde reagent: 16% (w/v) in 10% (w/v) hydrochloric acid.
16. Urease solution: (20 mg / ml).
17. Bromothymol blue solution: 0.5% (w/v) in water.
18. Barium Chloride: 5% (w/v) solution in water.
19. Sodium hydroxide: 2% (w/v) solution in water.
20. Sodium hypochlorite: 2% (w/v) solution in water.
21. Phenol solution: 5% (w/v) solution in water.
22. Silver nitrate reagent : 0.8% (w/v) in water
23. Potassium dichromate: 1% (w/v) in water.
24. Bromocresol purple solution: 0.5% (w/v) in water.
25. Ferric Chloride: 0.5% solution (w/v) in water.
26. Turmeric Paper.
27. Lactometer, test tubes, droppers, gas burner, measuring cylinders, beakers, bottles and other simple laboratory equipments.

Prohibited neutralizers like hydrated lime, sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate or sodium bicarbonate are added to milk to prevent spoilage.

Rosolic acid test (Soda Test)
Take 5 ml of milk in a test tube and add 5 ml alcohol followed by 2-3 drops of rosolic acid. If the colour of milk changes to pinkish red, it is inferred that the milk is adulterated with sodium carbonate / sodium bicarbonate and so unfit for human consumption. (Please note that this test will be effective only if the neutralizers are present in milk. In case the added neutralizers get nullified by the naturally developed acidity in milk, then this test will be negative and one needs to test, the alkaline condition of the milk for the presence of soda ash.)

Alkalinity Test
Take 20 ml of milk in a silica crucible and evaporate the water. The contents are then burnt in a muffle furnace at 550°C. The ash is dispersed in 10 ml distilled water and titrated against decinormal (N/10) hydrochloric acid using phenolphthalein indicator. If the titre value exceeds 1.2 ml, it can be construed that the milk is adulterated with neutralizers.

Take 5 ml milk in a test tube. Add 3 drops of paraphenylene diamine and shake well. Change in colour of the milk to blue confirms that the milk is adulterated with hydrogen peroxide.
To 10 ml of milk sample in a test tube add 10-15 drops of Vanadium Pentoxide reagent and mix. The development of pink or red colour indicates presence of hydrogen peroxide.

Formalin (40%) although poisonous, can preserve milk for a long time.
Take 10 ml of milk in a test tube. Add 5 ml conc. sulphuric acid (containing traces of Ferric Chloride) through the sides of the test tube without shaking. If a violet or blue ring appears at the intersection of the two layers, it shows the presence of formalin. Note violet coloration usually does not appear when relatively large quantities of formaldehyde are present.

Generally cane sugar is mixed in milk to increase the percentage solids content of milk i.e., to increase the lactometer reading of milk, that was already diluted with water.
Take 10 ml of milk in a test tube. Add 5 ml of hydrochloric acid along with 0.1 g of resorcinol. Shake the test tube well and place it in a boiling water bath for 5 min. Appearance of red colour indicates the presence of added cane sugar in milk.

Addition of starch increases the SNF content of milk. Wheat flour, arrowroot, rice flour, etc., can also be added for increasing the SNF content.
Take 3 ml milk in a test tube and boil it thoroughly. Cool the milk to room temperature. Add 2 to 3 drops of 1% iodine solution. Change of colour to blue indicates that the milk is adulterated with starch.

Poor quality glucose is sometimes added to milk to increase the lactometer reading.
Take 3 ml of milk in a test tube. Add 3 ml Barford’s reagent and mix it thoroughly. Keep the test tube in a boiling water bath for 3 min and then cool it for 2 min by immersing it in tap water without disturbance. Add 1 ml of phosphomolybdic acid and shake. If blue colour is visible, then glucose is present in the milk sample.
Page 3 of 4

Urea is generally added in the preparation of synthetic milk to raise the SNF value.
5 ml of milk is mixed well with 5 ml paradimethyl amino benzaldehyde reagent. If the solution turns distinct yellow in colour, then the given sample of milk contains urea. Control, normal milk may show a faint yellow colour due to presence of natural urea.
Take 5 ml of milk in a test tube. Add 0.2 ml of fresh urease (20 mg / ml). Shake well at room temperature. Add 0.1 ml of bromothymol blue solution. Appearance of blue colour after 10 – 15 min indicates the adulteration milk with urea.

The presence of sulphate in milk increases the lactometer reading. 5 ml of hot milk is taken in a test tube. A suitable acid for e.g. citric acid is added and the whey obtained is separated and filtered. The whey is taken in another test tube and 0.5 ml of 5% barium chloride is added. Appearance of precipitate indicates the presence of ammonium sulphate.
Take 5 ml of milk add 2.5 ml of 2% sodium hydroxide, 2.5 ml of 2% sodium hypochlorite and 2.5 ml of 5% phenol solution. Heat for 20 seconds in boiling water bath. If bluish colour turns to deep blue it indicates the presence of ammonium sulphate, however in case it turns to pink it shows that the sample is free from Ammonium sulphate.

Addition of salt in milk is mainly resorted to with the aim of increasing the corrected lactometer reading.
5 ml of silver nitrate reagent is taken in a test tube. Add 2-3 drops of potassium dichromate reagent. Add 1 ml of milk in the above test tube and mix thoroughly. If the contents of the test tube turn yellow in colour, then milk contains salt. If it turns to chocolate or reddish brown in colour, the milk sample is free from salt.

Take 10 ml of milk in a test tube and dilute it with equal quantity of hot water. Add 1 – 2 drops of phenolphthalein indicator. Development of pink colour indicates that the milk is adulterated with soap.

Take 5 ml of milk in a test tube and add 1-2 drops of bromocresol purple solution. Mix well. Appearance of violet colour indicates the presence of detergent in milk. Unadulterated milk samples will show a very faint violet colouration.

Lactometer reading detects adulteration of milk with water.
Take raw milk in a long stemmed wide mouth bottle or a measuring cylinder. Place the lactometer in it taking care to see that the lactometer does not touch the sides of the bottle or the measuring cylinder. Note down the reading at the surface of milk sample taken. Also note the temperature of the milk sample.

Though the adulteration of milk with water can be checked by lactometer reading, other adulterations too affect the lactometer reading. Hence freezing point depression, recognized by AOAC, is usually adopted.

Percentage of water added = Normal freezing point – Observed freezing point X 100 Normal freezing point
Normal freezing point of milk is taken as – 0.55°C. A tolerance level of 3% is given which is equivalent to specifying a minimum freezing point depression for authentic milk of – 0.55°C.
If the addition of nitric acid drop by drop in to the test milk sample results in the development of orange colour, it indicates the milk is adulterated with skim milk powder. Samples with out skim milk powder shows yellow colour.

Take 5 ml of milk in a test tube. Add 3-4 drops of concentrated sulphuric acid. Add 0.5% ferric chloride solution drop by drop and mix well. Development of buff colour indicates presence of benzoic acid and violet colour indicates presence of salicylic acid.

Take 5 ml milk in a test tube. Add 1 ml of concentrated hydrochloric acid and mix well. Dip the tip of turmeric paper into the acidified milk and dry in a watch glass at 100°C or over a small flame. If the turmeric paper turns red, it indicates the presence of borax or boric acid. Add a drop of ammonia solution on the turmeric paper and if the red colour changes to green, it confirms the presence of boric acid.

The following two adulteration tests are difficult to carry out by regular consumers as they require sophisticated equipments and so can be conducted only by qualified analysts. It is mentioned here in as additional information and for understanding.

The characteristic feature of milk is in its fatty acid composition, which mainly consists of short chain fatty acids such as butyric, caproic, caprylic acid; whereas the vegetable fats consist mainly of long chain fatty acids and hence adulteration of vegetable fat in milk can be easily found out by analyzing the fatty acid profile by gas chromatography.

The presence of buffalo milk in cow milk is tested by Hansa test. It is based on immunological assay. One ml of milk is diluted with 4 ml of water. It is then treated with 1 ml of antiserum. The characteristic precipitation reaction indicates the presence of buffalo milk in the sample taken. (The antiserum is developed by injecting buffalo milk proteins into rabbits).

Police busts milk adulteration racket in Hyderabad
February 19:

A person was arrested here by the police for allegedly adulterating milk and selling banned veterinary drugs. Acting on a tip-off, the North Zone task force team, along with personnel from the Commissioner of Food Safety, Drug Control department and the Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation (GHMC) raided a house at Bholakpur in Musheerabad locality here and arrested Damodar Yadav who is allegedly involved in adulterating milk and selling banned veterinary drugs to some milk vendors, without any valid license, the police said. The police seized 65 bags of milk powder, 1000 Oxytocin ampoules, 250 litres of hydrogen peroxide and 400 hypodermic syringes, the police said. Allegedly, the arrested used to prepare what they called 'milk', with the help of milk vendors by mixing hydrogen peroxide with water and inferior quality milk powder. Since hydrogen peroxide gives a thick lather and foam, one litre of such 'milk' would cost them only about Rs 15, which they allegedly sold for about Rs 35, the police said. Also, Damodar allegedly sold a banned drug called Oxytocin, along with hypodermic syringes, which is administered to cattle to get a higher output of milk. If given to cattle, Oxytocin's traces find its way into the milk and also to human beings affecting their health drastically, the police said. PTI